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Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian independence movement against British rule. He was born on January 23, 1897, in Cuttack, Orissa, India, to a lawyer, Janakinath Bose, and his wife Prabhavati Devi. He was the ninth of fourteen children. Bose was an outstanding student, and in 1913, he passed the entrance examination of the University of Calcutta with flying colors, standing fourth in the order of merit. He completed his graduation in philosophy from the same university in 1918.
In 1919, Bose was awarded a scholarship to study at Cambridge University, where he passed the Indian Civil Services (ICS) examination but resigned from the service in April 1921. He returned to India and became a leader of the Indian National Congress. He quickly made a reputation as a dynamic and charismatic leader and was appointed as the Mayor of Calcutta in 1924. However, his views on how to achieve independence for India were different from those of Mahatma Gandhi, the leader of the Congress party. Bose believed in a more militant approach to achieve independence, while Gandhi advocated for non-violent civil disobedience.
In 1927, Bose was elected as the President of the Congress party, but his presidency was controversial, and he resigned the following year. He was arrested multiple times for his activism and was placed under house arrest. In 1940, he escaped from house arrest and fled to Germany, where he met with high-ranking Nazi officials, including Adolf Hitler. He then traveled to Japan and formed the Indian National Army (INA) to fight against the British in India. The INA, also known as the “Azad Hind Fauj,” was made up of Indian prisoners of war and expatriate Indians who had been living in Southeast Asia.
Bose’s slogans, such as “Give me blood, I will give you freedom,” motivated many Indians to join the INA and fight for India’s independence. He became known as “Netaji,” meaning “Respected Leader,” and his INA became a symbol of resistance against British rule. Bose’s efforts to gain support from the Japanese government for the INA were initially successful, and the INA was able to capture the Andaman and Nicobar Islands from the British. However, the tide of the war turned against the Japanese, and the INA’s efforts were ultimately unsuccessful.
On August 18, 1945, Bose died in a plane crash in Taiwan under mysterious circumstances. The exact cause of his death remains a mystery, and there are various theories about what happened, including that he died in the crash, that he was murdered, or that he faked his death and continued to live in hiding. His death was a great loss to the Indian independence movement, and he is still remembered and revered as a hero in India.
In summary, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was a prominent leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule. He was known for his charismatic leadership and his belief in a more militant approach to achieve independence. He formed the Indian National Army (INA) and became a symbol of resistance against British rule. He died in a plane crash in 1945 under mysterious circumstances, but his legacy lives on in India.